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Tomatoes Get A Boost In Fresno State Graduate Studies

(Sept. 27, 2012) – Those delicious and juicy tomato salads of the season could be even more plentiful in the future, thanks to research being conducted at Fresno State.

   Steve Olson, publications editor for the California Agricultural Technology Institute, is reporting that  an experiment being conducted by a Fresno State graduate student has attracted the attention of researchers from universities and government agencies interested in the prospect of reduced greenhouse gas emissions.
 
Bardia Dehghanmanshadi, an international student from Iran, is completing his master’s thesis with a study of how treatments of carbon dioxide gas on fresh-market tomatoes affect plant growth rate and yield.
 
The work is being conducted under the guidance of Dr. Florence Cassel Sharma and Dr. Dave Goorahoo, assistant professors of plant science in the Jordan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. They also conduct research for the Center for Irrigation Technology (CIT) at Fresno State.
 
   The research team used special greenhouses to treat tomato plants with extra doses of CO2 , which was pumped into the chambers through a custom-designed airflow system. The chambers have no cover – for a reason.
 
“We wanted to make conditions for this experiment as close to real field conditions as possible, so we left the covers off to allow the CO2 to dissipate naturally,” Bardia explained, adding that the chambers allowed controls such as preventing wind from dissipating the gas too quickly.
 
Plants require CO2 for their metabolism in the same way humans require oxygen, Cassel Sharma said, so the researchers are asking: Would plants grow and be more productive if they get extra doses of the gas they love?
 
Primary producers of CO2 in California include gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles and equipment, power and cement plants, and oil refineries. CO2 is noted as one of the most prevalent of all the greenhouse gases produced by humans.
 
“A novel use of these emissions could be found in the agricultural sector since CO2 is the primary component of photosynthesis and therefore plant growth,” Cassel Sharma said. “Applying CO2 around the crop canopy could enhance photosynthesis and thus increase crop productivity and water use efficiency.”
 
Previous CIT studies indicate that CO2 enrichment of open field crops has a good chance of success, reported Goorahoo, who along with Cassel Sharma has conducted small-scale CO2 enrichment trials on other crops in recent years. Increased yields were observed on bell peppers and strawberries, he noted.
 
The current study was conducted over two summer growing seasons, with the second one just completed. CIT research associate Shawn Ashkan designed and supervised construction of the greenhouse chambers and CO2 delivery system. In addition to extra doses of CO2,, some of the plants received irrigation water at deficit levels.
 
As part of the experiment, plants were sampled regularly during the growing season and measured for leaf area, nutrient content and weight. Photosynthesis measurements were taken for each CO2 and irrigation treatment.
 
At the conclusion of the growing season in September, tomatoes from the different treatment groups were harvested. Yields will be measured along with plant and root biomass. Results will be disseminated through various outlets including conferences and industry events.
 
"The farm industry has a lot to gain if an economically efficient method for delivering CO2 can be developed," Cassel Sharma said.
 
Funding for this research was provided by the California State University Agricultural Research Institute, based at Fresno State. 

 
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